Modafinil (Provigil) is one of the most well-known psychostimulant drugs. Nootropic drugs or psychostimulants are used to increase concentration, get rid of drowsiness, and improve memory and perception. They stimulate brain activity and relieve sleep problems. Modafinil is also known as Provigil in the USA and UK.
Modafinil is available in the form of oral tablets. The concentration of the active ingredient in tablets is either 100 mg or 200 mg.
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Indications for use
Dosing and administration
The defined daily dose of the drug varies from 100 mg to 200 mg/day. Athletes should take 50 mg to 100 mg, gradually increasing the dose. The drug should be used two hours before a sporting event. It is indicated for aerobic exercise with increased endurance.
Treatment of cocaine dependence
Modafinil has been used in the treatment of cocaine-dependent patients . A double-blind study showed a reduction in cocaine craving and increased number of days of consistent nonuse of cocaine with the use of modafinil.
Modafinil for Weight loss
People even with a healthy weight can use Modafinil to reduce appetite and weight loss. According to several studies , Modafinil users lost weight and reduced calorie intake by 18% when taking 200 mg/day and by 38% when taking 400 mg/day as compared with a placebo. Scientists attribute the effect of a decrease in appetite with amphetamine-like effects.
Chronic liver diseases lead to excessive fatigue and daytime sleepiness in patients. Modafinil may help these individuals to cope with such disorders. According to laboratory data, two months of use of the drug helps to significantly reduce the symptoms of fatigue. For the evaluation of analyzes, the Epworth sleepiness scale was used.
Treatment of mental disorders
Though Modafinil is not intended to cure mental health problems, it can be used to treat some mental conditions. It restores cognitive abilities in people who have undergone chemotherapy, relieves memory problems, alleviates depression in bipolar affective disorder, and reduces symptoms of neurological fatigue in multiple sclerosis. In pediatrics, Modafinil is used to treat an attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents aged from six years to 17 years old.
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
Modafinil increases dopamine levels in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens, norepinephrine in the hypothalamus, and serotonin in the amygdala, respectively. Under the action of the active component, the glutamatergic chain is activated, while the transmission of the nerve signal is suppressed under the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid.
The drug affects neuropeptides orexins, also known as hypocretins, which are responsible for regulating wakefulness. The activation of these neurons leads to an increase in the level of histamine and reduce sleepiness.
The most common side effects of Modafinil are backache, headache, nausea, anxiety, nasal congestion, diarrhea, and dizziness.
Taking the drug in the second half of the day is not recommended due to its prolonged biological half-life. Athletes should use the drug with caution because it can cause positive anti-doping tests. The medication is not approved for use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (lactation) because of possible harm to the fetus as well as in the case of cardiovascular diseases.
Before starting therapy, the patient should notify the doctor about any other medications being taken, because the combination of Modafinil with some drugs may cause unpredictable effects. For example, Modafinil reduces the effectiveness of birth control pills, which may lead to unintended pregnancy.
The combination of Modafinil with alcohol is prohibited.