Provigil is also known as diphenylmethyl-sulfinyl acetamide. The drug belongs to the group of nootropics that are used to treat narcolepsy, arousal, sleep apnea, and other sleep disorders. Provigil is also used to treat disorders of concentration, memory, and perception. It is included in the group of dietary supplements and it is considered to be part of the sports doping category.

Composition and release form

Provigil is available only in the form of tablets with a dosage of either 100 mg and 200 mg; there are no other forms of this medication. The main active ingredient of the drug is modafinil.

Mechanism of action

The exact mechanism of interaction of the drug with neurotransmitters of the brain has not yet been clarified. Presumably, the active substance increases the release of monoamines, catecholamines, dopamine, and norepinephrine from synaptic clefts. At the same time, the component increases the level of histamine of the hypothalamus. The drug is not addictive.

Indications for use

As a complex therapy, the drug is used as a supplement to antidepressants. Indications for use include suppression of the need for sleep; struggle with general fatigue; abnormal daytime sleepiness (hypersomnia); treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; impairment of short-term memory; sleep deprivation; neurolepsy; slow response and accuracy (i.e., it is used by members of the military, astronauts, pilots); interruptions in circadian rhythms; and reduced sleep quality.

Dosing and administration

The standard dosage of tablets is 4 mg/kg of human weight. The dose is about 100 mg to 200 mg/day. Such a dose helps with the suppression of sleep or with promoting energy in the morning or at night. For the treatment of narcolepsy or apnea (breath holding), 200 mg to 400 mg/day is taken once or in the morning and at noon. To improve physical performance, the patient should take 100 mg to 400 mg/day. For the treatment of hypersomnia, 200 mg/day should be taken once in the morning.

Side effects

During treatment with Provigil, there may be some side effects. The most common are back pain, headaches and dizziness, nausea and diarrhea, anxiety and insomnia, nasal congestion, allergic reactions, mouth ulcers, heat, swelling of the face and throat, respiratory failure, and yellowing of the skin. According to clinical trials, taking 1,200 mg of the drug/day for between seven days and 21 days or a single dose of 4,500 mg did not cause symptoms of overdose.

Contraindications

According to the instructions attached to each drug based on modafinil, there are some prohibitions on this medication’s use. These include hypersensitivity to the components of the composition or lactose; recent cardiovascular diseases including left ventricular hypertrophy and mitral valve prolapse; and pregnancy and lactation.